What’s in the Air? (United Airlines Image Crisis)


By now, we’ve probably all seen the video – a man forcibly being dragged from his seat and off a United Airlines flight. To say the video was disturbing would be an understatement and naturally, it immediately sparked a huge backlash against the airline company. The incident occurred less than a month after the airline found itself at the center of a Twitter backlash, after Shannon Watts, founder of Moms Demand Action, tweeted that the two gate agents for the airline would not let two young girls board a flight, because they were wearing leggings.

While public opinion of the latter incident was a bit divisive, especially when it was explained that the two girls were pass customers and not paying customers, the double whammy of that incident and this latest one has made for a very negative and P.R. nightmare for the airline company. As this past week came to a close, the airline saw its stock fall by 4 percent. However, what made this recent incident particularly damaging for United Airlines is the very tone deaf response of its CEO Oscar Munoz.

Ironically, just a little over a month prior to this incident, Munoz was named Communicator of the Year by PR Week for, according to editors, being “An excellent leader who understands the value of PR”. Munoz’ response to the airline’s current PR crisis certainly makes one call the former statement into question.

I have written quite a bit about crisis communication on this blog, always reiterating the four key steps of crisis management that all organizations and businesses must adhere to in the face of any PR crisis. No matter the incident or issue, an organization should always remember to 1) do not hide, 2) be timely in response, 3) avoid being defensive and 4) explain why it won’t happen again. While United and Munoz did two of these things correctly – namely not hiding and being timely in their response, they failed at one of the most important rules, i.e. avoid being defensive. More importantly, they made one of the biggest follies of crisis management – dismissing or blaming the victim and not offering a sincere apology.

The first comment on the matter from the airline came in the form of a tweet, which stated, “Flight 3411 from Chicago to Louisville was overbooked. After our team looked for volunteers, one customer refused to leave”. Naturally, this outraged many, as it seemed to suggest that the individual being dragged off the plane was at fault.

Next, Munoz made his first statement on the matter, which was also posted on the airline’s official twitter page. In the statement, the CEO referred to the situation as upsetting and stated that the company was reaching out to the passenger. However, it’s Munoz’ apology for having to “re-accommodate these customers” that sparked outrage from some individuals. Many commented that the sentence read as dismissive of the gravity of the situation and that instead, the whole incident was merely an inconvenience to some customers.

The greatest backlash came when an internal letter sent by Munoz to United employees, went public. In the letter, Munoz is quoted as saying, “As you will read, this situation was unfortunately compounded when one of the passengers we politely asked to deplane refused and it became necessary to contact Chicago Aviation Security Officers to help. Our employees followed established procedures for dealing with situations like this.” Once again, to many, the statement read as blaming the victim and that the CEO was essentially saying that violently and forcibly dragging a paying customer off their plane was completely within their right to do so. Naturally, this did not sit well with many and the public outcry against the airline intensified.

Since then, Munoz has put out two more statements, each more conciliatory than the previous one and the airline has now vowed to change crew flight policy. However, the damage has been done and it may take a little while for the bleeding to stop.

This was a horrible situation in many ways but Munoz and the company’s initial response is another compelling study of why the first few hours of any crisis are the most important and why those initial public responses are so crucial. United was faced with a very damaging situation, particularly because there was visual evidence. The public reading about a man being forcibly removed from a plane is no way as damaging as the visual of a bespectacled, middle-aged man being dragged violently, as he’s screaming and bleeding, off a plane.

That visual alone should have alerted the airline company to the fact that this was a very delicate issue that they needed to navigate cautiously and with as much sensitivity and empathy as possible.  However, they didn’t do that. Rather, their first reaction was to go on the defensive and point the finger at the victim.

Not many individuals are going to initially side with a billion-dollar company over a vulnerable looking man seemingly being violently dragged. And United and Munoz should have been perceptive enough to realize this. The good news for United is that so far, tickets for the airline have not declined. That may change of course but as of right now, I’m sure any positive news is a great thing for the company. Still, the damage to the airline’s reputation has been done and that damage may cost them a lot more in the long run.


How Effectively Did The Academy Handle Oscars Mix-Up?


It was the Oscar moment seen and heard around the world – La La Land was incorrectly announced as the winner of Best Picture, after presenters, Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway were inexplicably handed the wrong envelope.  Social media immediately went crazy and the press was all over it in the days that followed.

More importantly, it was an extremely embarrassing moment for The Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences and possibly one of the most embarrassing in the show’s 80 plus year history. And while host Jimmy Kimmel was right that at the end of the day, it’s just an award, for the filmmakers who work in the industry, the Oscars is one of the highest achievements they can receive.

And the mix-up not only robbed the winners of their winning moment but falsely made the producers of La La Land believe they’d achieved something that they hadn’t. In those moments they went from joy and pride to disappointment. The moment was the definition of a P.R. nightmare for The Academy.

The reality is no organization, no matter how profitable and effectively managed, is immune to experiencing a crisis situation at some point. The key is in how the organization manages and responds to said crisis. There are a few important steps any organization should practice, in order to weather any crisis as best as possible, including one, don’t hide, two, have a timely response, three, avoid being defensive and four, ensure and explain how it won’t happen again.

So how well did The Academy handle this recent crisis, based on these four key steps? In my opinion, they handled it fairly well and definitely get a passing grade. Regarding the four steps:

  1. Don’t Hide – The Academy did not ignore the moment and hope that in a few days everyone would forget about it and move on. They issued an immediate apology to the producers of both films, as well as the presenters and later issued a more detailed apology from the president of The Academy.


  1. Timely Response – Piggy-backing off the first point, not hiding also means being timely in the organization’s response to said crisis. In this case, The Academy issued a first statement hours after the incident, early Monday morning. The second statement from Academy president Cheryl Boone-Isaacs came four days later and the president addressed the time taken for her statement by acknowledging that they wanted all the facts to be properly gathered and assessed.


  1. Avoid Being Defensive – While those identified as being responsible for the mix-up were quite publicly reprimanded by The Academy president in her statement, the tone of both statements were for the most part contrite and chastened. There was no attempt to make light of the situation or dismiss its importance and seriousness.


  1. Explain Why It Won’t Happen Again – As wonderful as it is for an organization to admit their error and apologize, it is little comfort if they can’t explain how they will ensure that it won’t happen again. In this case, The Academy explained that not only would the accountants responsible for the error not be allowed to ever work the show again but that they were implementing new guidelines and reviewing the protocols of PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), the accounting firm that has handled the Oscars ballots for years. The statement also made clear that a future working relationship with the accounting firm was still under review. Rather than a vague promise that the incident would never happen again, the president, in her statement, made sure to explain how they would try to ensure it didn’t.

Benefits of Implementing an Effective Influencer Marketing Strategy


Influencer Marketing has become one of the most buzzed about terms in the industry, in recent years. So what exactly is influencer marketing? In a nutshell, it’s focusing some of your marketing and promotional activities around key individuals who have significant influence over potential buyers. In other words, it is more or less “word of mouth” marketing and it’s really not that different from what public relations practitioners have been doing for years in cultivating relationships with key industry opinion leaders for earned media purposes.

However, the concept has become more ubiquitous in recent years in large part due to the internet and specifically, social media. The popularity of social media and by extension specific individual social media accounts has created a renewed interest and importance on the power of influencers. And the reality is there are really no downsides to implementing an effective influencer marketing strategy into your business plans as the benefits are numerous. Here are just a few of these benefits.


  • High ROI – According to a study conducted by Nielsen Catalina Solutions in conjunction with TapInfluence, Influencer Marketing can, in some cases, yield 16x higher ROI than an average digital marketing campaign.
  • Increased Trust & Credibility – Much like the use of thought leaders, the use of the right influencers can increase your credibility to your target audience, as well as increase their trust in your brand.
  • Increased Brand Awareness – This is obvious of course but still needs to be stressed that the successful implementation of influencer marketing increases your brand awareness, which of course can lead to an increase in leads, sales and ultimately your business bottom line.
  • Expand Brand Reach – Influencer Marketing also affords the opportunity to expand your brand reach, sometimes to an audience you may not have even previously been aware of.
  • Improve SEO – It’s very simple really. A sound influencer marketing strategy means greater opportunities and avenues for your brand to be mentioned and referenced on various platforms and online locations, which also means greater opportunities for showing up in organic search results.
  • Save Money – The return on investment, in some cases, from an effective influencer marketing strategy is far greater than the use of paid advertising and of course, a lot cheaper. According to a study from MDG Advertising, 70 percent of consumers want to learn about products through content as opposed to traditional advertising methods.

Of course, an effective influencer marketing strategy requires taking smart and specific steps. Here are a few tips for developing an effective influencer marketing strategy.


  • Define Goals & Objectives – It can never be stated enough. You should always have a road map for whatever type of campaign or project your business is implementing, which means there should also be clearly defined goals and objectives.
  • Define Your Audience – Along with defined goals and objectives, there must also be a clear identification of your audience and their needs.
  • Categorize Different Influencers – As with most things, there are different types and categories of influencers. SmartInsights have identified ten and they all came with their unique voice and influence. To develop an effective influencer marketing strategy it is imperative to identify which type of influencer or influencers would be most appropriate and valuable for your brand.
  • Build Influencer Relationships Organically – Most people do not take too kindly to feeling like they are being used – more importantly that someone only interacts with them because of what they can get out of them. And influencers are no different. Of course, there are some influencers who don’t really care, especially if they are being paid but typically, most influencers are put off by a request to promote a brand when they have had no previous interaction at all with the company. It’s best to start by building relationships with influencers, not unlike relationship building with your target audience. This will significantly increase the credibility and genuineness of said influencer promoting your brand.
  • Consider More Than Just Follower Count – Yes, of course, an influencer’s follower count is important. It does suggest the power of their reach and more importantly, their voice.  That being said, we know that follower counts don’t always accurately tell the tale. After all, followers can be bought and manipulated in other ways. Therefore, it is important to consider other factors such as an influencer’s engagement rate. How many comments are they getting for their posts, how many re-tweets, likes, etc? That is a far more accurate measure of just influential they are.

5 New Year Resolutions For P.R. Pros

New Year means new goals, fresh, new perspectives and of course resolutions for the year. While we’re all making numerous promises to lose five pounds, spend more time volunteering and to eat healthier, it’s important to remember that resolutions do not only apply to our personal lives. It is just as important to make resolutions aimed at improving our professional life. So with that said, here are five resolutions P.R. pros should consider making this year.

  • Make Measurement the Focus of Your Campaigns – As P.R. practitioners, we’ve all been there – that brilliant idea for a campaign comes to us and we’re gung ho and super excited to jump right in. However, when the details and specifics start taking shape, we realize there are limitations in how we can measure the success or failure of said campaign. The reality is, if you cannot accurately and effectively measure the success or failure of a campaign, then it’s not a good one. This year, resolve to place measurement at the forefront of all your campaign developments.


  • Challenge Yourself & Learn Something New – A little personal background. Almost a year ago, I started my new job as a Content Marketing Specialist. While it had its normal challenges that always comes with starting a new job, the biggest challenge for me was the high expectations regarding my photography skills. Full confession, I am not a great photographer (yet…). The extent of my skills was taking pictures with my cute, tiny digital camera and of course my smartphone. But suddenly I was handed a very expensive, very professional camera and expected to deliver high-quality images and videos. To say it was daunting and scary would be an understatement. However, I accepted the challenge and saw it for what it was, a great learning opportunity and a chance to acquire a new and highly desirable skill. Learning and developing new skills is always important, especially in an industry like ours that is constantly growing and evolving. So this year, resolve to learn or further develop a skill or two or three. Sites like ALISON LearningSkillshare and LinkedIn Learning offer a number of free courses in a number of different fields including Marketing, Art, Psychology, Photography, etc.


  • Establish/Solidify Influencer Relationships – While the term influencer marketing has become one of the most buzzed about terms in the last few years, the P.R. industry has always understood the power and importance of influencers and more importantly, influencer relationships. Of course, the internet and more importantly social media have created a much larger community of influencers with much greater reach. This year, resolve to build new influencer relationships and solidify existing ones.


  • Establish Meaningful Journalist Relationships – One of the biggest stories of the past year, in the midst of one of the craziest U.S. Presidential elections ever, was the emergence of fake news. Some even held Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook culpable for being a source of a lot of it. The fact is, the internet makes it very easy for just about anyone to call themselves a “news source”. So this year, resolve to be more vigilant in recognizing credible and accurate news sources and respective journalists and work at establishing meaningful professional relationships with them.


  • Feng-Shui Your Professional Life – Feng Shui is not just for your home and personal life. It can also be applied to one’s professional life as well. And much like your home and personal life, it simply means taking small but significant steps to create a sense of harmony and calm in your professional life. This can include simple steps such as organizing your workspace better, learning how to better manage your time, learning how to say no to avoid taking on more than you can handle, etc. If you are constantly stressed and agitated at work, it’s time to feng shui your professional life.

Tips For Marketing Your Cause

In October 1985, the American Cancer Society in partnership with a pharmaceutical company founded the National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, which would happen in October annually. The goal was to increase awareness of the disease and raise money for research into finding a cure, better treatment, early detection and more. From that early beginning, thousands of charities and for-profits have since contributed to making the month of October a global support of breast cancer awareness, with the iconic pink ribbon recognizable the world over as a symbol for the cause.

It is truly admirable to support and be passionate about a good cause, whether your business is a non-profit or a for-profit. However, simply being passionate about your cause is not always enough to get the support you need. It is essential that as a business, you learn how to market your cause effectively. Here are some key steps that can help you achieve this.

1. Have a plan – It is always important to have a detailed marketing plan before executing any marketing strategy and marketing a cause is no different. You must outline your goal, audience, objectives, strategy and tactics, budget, timeline and more. A well constructed and clearly outlined plan serves as a roadmap for successfully marketing your cause.

2. Keep Your Message Simple & Direct – Having a muddled and confused message that tries to include too many things at once increases the risk of no one understanding what it is you are trying to achieve and not being interested. Having an excellent marketing plan to start will help in this regard. Your plan should have a specific goal and knowing exactly what your goal is will be a strong asset in helping you define your message in a simple and direct manner.

3. Be Authentic & Credible – This should go without saying but it is extremely important that people believe you are honest and sincere in your efforts; otherwise it is unlikely they will support the cause. The quickest way for a cause to fall apart is for individuals to think you are untrustworthy. This also refers to facts and figures. Don’t exaggerate statistics or the issue to gain support.

4. Leverage Social Media (The Right Way) – It’s virtually impossible to avoid social media today and the fact is if utilized in the right way it can be a very effective marketing tool at a fairly low cost. The key, of course, is to use it in the right way. Like most marketing channels, each social media channel has its own pros and cons, demographics, etc. Understanding these differences will help you to better utilize each in the right way to achieve your ultimate goal.

5. Don’t Ignore Traditional Media – We’ve probably all heard the refrain that print is dead. With the advent of the Internet and proliferation of smartphones today, that certainly seems to be the case to some. However, that belief is a fallacy. Traditional media is still a very effective marketing tool, especially depending on the type of audience you are trying to reach. Press releases, radio and television media interviews, for example, are all still very effective methods of getting the word out about your cause.

6. Have a Great Website – This is an absolute must. While social media is great, it is not enough. A well designed and thorough website is a great hub for posting all the information anyone will need to know about your cause and organization. It is a great resource for posting press and media related materials, news, call to action, organization background, blog articles, photos, videos and so much more.

7. Align With a Compatible Organization – Partnering with a more recognizable and profitable organization can increase the credibility and brand recognition of your cause, as well as increase your audience sometimes exponentially. The key here is that the partnership is a right fit.
8. Brand Your Cause – While increasing awareness is often a major factor for most causes, ultimately the end goal is to receive donations and funding. In other words, like any organization, you want to make money. Therefore it is important to treat your cause like an organization and like an organization, you need successful branding. Yes, breast cancer awareness by itself is a very important cause. However, we cannot deny that it is today a brand, particularly with the co-opting of the color pink and especially the pink ribbon. When anyone sees that pink ribbon symbol, they instantly know what it means and what it is for. That kind of top of the mind awareness is invaluable.

9. Create Engaging & Shareable Worthy Content – You cannot have a great social media presence, without great content. You cannot have a great website without great content and you cannot have a strong traditional media presence, without great content. Simply put, you cannot successfully market your cause, without great content. The point is to get people’s attention, get them to care and want to help and the way to do that is through engaging and effective content. This includes everything from videos, photos, infographics, case studies, testimonials, press releases, etc.

How To Develop Ideas For Blog Posts


One of the most common writing tips, especially for individuals just starting out, is to “write what you know”. So here is what I knew this week – I was completely stumped coming up with a topic for my latest blog post. I had a few ideas floating around but they all just felt incredibly dull and uninspired to me. And that led me to think about other people who are likely in the same current predicament, which led to my realizing a good blog post topic is probably tips on coming up with awesome blog post topics and ideas. And so, here we are.

  1. Read…a lot – Seems obvious but you would be surprised how many people are not avid readers. And it is especially shocking in the communications field. I still meet people who tell me they haven’t read one book in months. As a book-lover my whole life, this is just baffling to me. Because it really cannot be overstated, that to be a good writer, you have to be an avid reader. And reading (which by the way, I include everything from research studies, books, magazines, white papers, newspaper articles, blog posts, etc.) will open your world up to new and different ideas, which will provide a wealth of topics for your next blog post.


  1. Keep Up With Current Events – One of the most important elements of a successful blog is to be timely and current with your articles. The best way to do this is to know what is going on in the world. Everything from politics, industry news, social issues, and human interest stories, pop culture, etc. are all important to be aware of and current about, as they can all provide for interesting and compelling blog posts.


  1. Keep An Idea File – Whether or not you were a Harry Potter fan, you’ve probably heard or read the story of J.K. Rowling writing her first ideas for the series on a napkin, as inspiration struck her on a train. The reality is, inspiration can strike at any time and it helps to document ideas as they come. It’s possible you may never use some of them but it can definitely come in handy when inspiration is low and the ideas are not coming easily. An idea file also helps decrease the possibility of your blog becoming inactive, due to a lack of fresh ideas.


  1. Research The Competition – It never hurts to see what is out there and what other bloggers are writing about. You should never copy or try to mimic others but you may find something that is missing, a hole in the blogosphere that you can fill or see a topic in a new way that gives you a unique idea of how to approach it. Basically, researching your competition cannot hurt.


  1. Do A Keyword Search – An easy way to get ideas for a blog post, especially if you already have a topic in mind, is to do a basic keyword search. There are a number of search tools that can quickly generate hundreds of topics and ideas for possible blog posts.


  1. Think Outside The Box – Sometimes, the most daunting aspect of writing a blog post is not so much coming up with an idea but well, having to write it. However, blog posts do not always have to be 1000 plus word articles. It is more than acceptable to make a post featuring pictures, videos, infographics, etc. People often respond positively to visual elements and it is no different for a blog post.


  1. Talk To Others – It’s always a good idea to pick other people’s brains when mulling over an issue, topic, idea, etc. Talking to family, friends, co-workers, etc. might give you an idea for a topic you otherwise may have never considered. Or it may make you see a topic in a new light that will give you an idea for a new blog post on a topic you’ve previously written about.


  1. Consider Your Hobbies – As I stated above, one of the easiest ways to start writing is to simply write what you know. So if you’re stumped for ideas, it can be very helpful to consider the things you are interested in. For example, I love tennis and a simple communications blog post on that topic that is current and relevant, is the suspension of Maria Sharapova and how I believe that may tarnish her brand, which is worth millions in endorsements (and yes I am well aware that I have yet to actually write said post and really should).


  1. Know Your Industry – Whatever your focus, be it public relations like this blog or sports, fashion, entertainment, politics, etc. one way to consistently develop blog post ideas and topics, is to know the industry very, very well. Follow popular industry blogs, organizations, read the latest research findings, e-books, and white papers, watch the latest TED Talks, participate in seminars, webinars, etc. Being consistently up to date and aware of what is going in the industry one is writing about is one of the most important parts of maintaining a successful blog.


  1. Re-Purpose Your Content – If all else fails, revisit articles and posts you’ve previously written. Building on previous writing and content is one of the most common elements in academic research. Individuals are constantly doing studies that answer a question a previous study did not or fill in a gap that was left unfinished in a previous study. And your blog posts are no different. Perhaps there is a topic you wrote about that has since had new developments, renewed interest or maybe there is something you previously wrote but have since changed your mind about. Any of these are great reasons to revisit your previous posts.

Most Common Misconceptions About Social Media


There is no question that we are completely entrenched in the digital age. As such, there is certainly no shortage of organizations online and particularly, in the social media sphere. At this point, it is the very rare company that does not have at least a Facebook account. However, despite the pervasiveness of social media, there are still many misconceptions that a lot of individuals, as well as organizations, have, in regard to it.

  1. It Is Easy – Hard as it may be to believe, the truth is there are many who still believe social media promotion and marketing is easy. When I explain what I do as a content marketer to individuals who don’t understand it, I get many comments along the lines of, “you get paid just to post on Facebook? Anybody can do that.” Yes, many are still under the impression that social media posting in a professional capacity, involves simply making random comments, updates, etc. And to say that is untrue would be a gross understatement. As is the case with any type of promotion and communication activity by an organization, there is a strategy involved with having a successful social media presence. It includes having a clear and concise plan detailing the organization’s goal, objectives, tactics, etc. Without that road map, an organization’s social media efforts will likely fail and be completely ineffective.


  1. You Should be on Every Channel – Another very common and at times costly misconception is that an organization should be on as many popular social media channels as possible. This is simply not true and in many cases, doing so results in a number of poorly developed channels. I am firm believer in that it is always best to start slow and build over time. Therefore, establishing two or three channels that are regularly updated with fresh and engaging content is best and if need be, over time add more. It is also important to remember that every social media channel has its own pros and cons, audience, benefits, etc. And thus, your organization and its brand may not really fit with a particular social media channel.


  1. It is Free – As the old adage goes, “nothing in life is free” and the same holds for social media. Yes, most channels merely require a valid email address to create an account but the fact is most organizations are likely going to engage in some type of sponsored posts/ads to reach a number of people they really want to on social media. Facebook and Twitter, for example, offer targeted ads that can help your organization reach its desired target audience. And using these tools is certainly not free. Also, effective social media management requires experienced manpower and whether or not an organization chooses to find that in the form of outsourcing or hiring a social media team, the fact is it will come at a cost.


  1. We Only Need Social Media – We’ve all seen and heard the expression, “print is dead.” There are many who believe that traditional advertising is very much a thing of the past and only digital media counts. However, the reality is completely different. Traditional advertising, including print, television and yes radio, is still very much alive and thriving, not to mention very effective if utilized correctly. Another misconception in relation to this factor is that some organizations believe social media is all that matters in regard to their digital marketing efforts. And that is most definitely not the case, as social media is just one aspect of the digital world, which includes email marketing, display advertising, search engine optimization (SEO), etc. Thinking that all a business needs to be successful online is a few social media channels is a complete fallacy that is likely to negatively impact an organization’s bottom line.


  1. Target Audience is Not on Social Media – Many organizations whose target audience tend to skew a little older, believe that there is no point in using social media because it is for “young people” and therefore not an avenue in which they would reach said audience. That is false. First, research indicates that many older individuals are in fact active on social media. A 2015 Pew Research Center study showed that social media usage among individuals 65 and older has more than tripled since 2010. Once again, the key for many organizations to remember is that it is not necessary to be on every social media channel and so it is important to just find the one where your audience is most likely to be present and simply incorporate that channel into other promotional efforts.


  1. Any Channel Will Do – Once again, this is absolutely false and in fact, can be a very costly mistake for some organizations. As previously stated, all social media channels have their pros and cons, as well as specific target audiences. Therefore, every channel is not going to be perfect for every business and for every objective. And this is just one more reason it is essential organizations plan and create a concise social media strategy before fully utilizing it. This would help establish what goals and objectives the organization want to accomplish and knowing that will help better identify what channels will work best.


  1. It is Time-Consuming – There are many organizations, particularly small businesses that believe they simply do not have the time or the manpower necessary to maintaining a well-developed and successful social media presence. While it is true that creating and maintaining a solid social media presence is not easy, it becomes far less time consuming if one has a well-defined plan, including an editorial calendar of when to post what and where. Having that clear roadmap makes a world of difference.


  1. It Can’t be Measured – This is probably one of the most common misconceptions and one that is in fact perpetuated by many in the industry. It is true that there is no unanimously agreed upon industry measurement for social media. And it is also true that because it moves so quickly, with new channels popping up every two years or so, it makes it harder to create one standard for measurement. However, to say that social media efforts simply cannot be measured is grossly inaccurate. There are many measurement tools for measuring the success or failure of an organization’s social media efforts, including, but not limited to, shares, likes, comments, click-thru-rate, bounce rate, etc. All of these and much more help to measure the level of engagement, reach, and conversion, achieved via the company’s social media efforts.